Paraphrasing is something similar to retelling. The objective is to give the same information in other, your own words. Idea is the same, but the words are different.
¤ to make sure that you fully understand the content (for example, a poem or a Bible verse or a speech from a play by Shakespeare);
¤ to discuss someone's argument or text directly;
¤ to use some information in your own argumentative text;
¤ to present an opposing point of view that you wish to dispute.
You must resist the temptation to copy the original lines, long phrases, sentences or passages. Copying the words of others is called plagiarism, it is stealing of strange person’s thoughts. Plagiarism is prosecuted by the law. It’s best to learn and develop effective paraphrasing strategies to use them when it is needed.
Remember, for good paraphrasing you should have a very rich vocabulary. Use different synonyms. Reading literature usually helps to learn new words, to understand new cases for using already known words; in other words reading will help you to widen your vocabulary and enrich your language.
How to Paraphrase a Text
¤ Use alternative words to the author’s, in order to paraphrase.
¤ If you mention the original author’s words to name important ideas, enclose his or her phrases in quotation marks.
¤ Use your own sentence structure as well as your own words. Preserving the author’s sentence structure, even with alternative wording, is considered plagiarizing.
¤ Put a quotation on the source, even if your work does not direct connection with it.
¤ When paraphrasing the text, give the resultant text a new original name.
Your task will be to recognize a paraphrase or produce a paraphrase in all sections of the TOEFL. Paraphrasing techniques include substituting synonyms, using alternative grammatical forms, avoiding common paraphrasing difficulties, and citing expressions and ideas.